White Meat Recipes

White Meat Recipes

White meat is a classification of meat that pertains to the quantity of the white muscles. These muscle fibers are called fast-twitch muscles, which the animal uses “for quick bursts of activity,” as described in Exploratorium, a website devoted to the science of cooking and sponsored by the National Science Foundation in the United States. “White meat has a translucent “glassy” quality when it is raw. When it’s cooked, the proteins denature and recombine, or coagulate, and the meat becomes opaque and whitish,” according to Exploratorium.

So technically, sources of white meats are those that turn white or lighter when cooked, such as chicken, turkey, quail, and pheasant. Pork has been marketed as “the other white meat” although the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classify pork as a red meat. It’s a matter of semantics, as the Wikipedia entry states, since nutritionists “consider all meat from mammals to be red meat.”

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a public health agency within the USDA, recommends that when cooking white meat (poultry), especially whole chickens, it’s safe to keep its internal temperature at 165 °F on your meat thermometer. The Exploratorium lists an internal temperature of 180° F for chicken, a bit higher than the FSIS recommendation.

With regards to roasting white meat recipes, the USDA-FSIS recommends roasting chicken at 350° F, the length of time depending on the weight and type of chicken. Whole roasting hens at 5 to 7 lbs. should be roasted for 2 to 2 ¼ hours, while it can be grilled for 18-25 minutes for every pound. For chicken breast fillet halves, it’s 20 to 30 minutes for the boneless and grilling at 6 to 8 minutes per side. For drumsticks, roast for 35 to 45 minutes and grill for 8 to 12 minutes per side.

In terms of nutrition, a cup of roasted white meat chicken has 242 calories, 6 grams of total fat and 119 mg of cholesterol, according to the Livestrong website. In contrast, a grilled beef round has 420 calories, 13.1 grams of total fat and 190 mg of cholesterol, according to a nutritional analysis from the Self Magazine online Nutrition Data.

There are numerous recipes for white meat, from roasted chickens to casseroles, stews, and stir-fries. Just type in any of the white meats such as chicken, turkey or quail, and see how versatile white meats are in cooking.

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Smoked Turkey Recipes

Smoked Turkey Recipes 

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For better flavor, you’ve got to smoke your holiday turkey. While turkeys are traditionally roasted, and in some southern states in the United States, deep-fried, smoked turkey recipes are also worth trying. Not only does it impart that savory smoke into the lean meat, it also makes the turkey even more tender and fantastic piled on a sandwich after the celebration.

There are two types of smoked turkey: “a cured or pumped smoked bird and a smoke-cooked bird with no added ingredients.” This is according to the “Sausage and Smoked Meat Formulation and Processing” bulletin of The University of Georgia, Athens (UGA), which was published in 1982 and excerpted on the university’s National Center for Home Food Preservation website.

The first type of smoked turkey recipe involves pump curing the turkey first before it’s smoked. A brine solution (composed of water, salt, sugar, saltpetre and sodium nitrite) is injected into the thickest portions of thigh and breast. The bird is then fully immersed in the same solution to cure for about 48 hours. Before it is smoked, the cured turkey must be washed in fresh water and then air dried, according to the UGA processing instructions.

The second type proceeds straight to the smoke cooking method without the need to brine and cure the meat. In smoked turkey recipes for the home, invest on a smoker (a cylinder-shaped device that runs on electricity, gas, or charcoal). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a charcoal smoker as being composed of two pans, one for the charcoal and the other to be filled with liquid (water, wine, juice, etc.). The liquid, according to the USDA, “creates the moist, hot smoke needed for cooking.”

You should also have a reliable meat thermometer to check for the internal temperature of 165 °F as recommended by the USDA. When using wood fire, hickory, oak, apple or cherry, may be used as it infuses the meat with great flavors. Once the smoker reaches 225 to 300 °F, place the bird on the pan to begin the smoking process.  That temperature should be maintained throughout the cooking, usually about 20 to 30 minutes for every pound of meat. The UGA processing instructions estimates about 10 to 12 hours for smoking the pump cured turkey.

Once done, rest the turkey for about 15 minutes before carving. The UGA describes a smoked turkey beautifully: “The finished smoked pump cured turkey should have a rich pecan-nut-brown surface with a light pink color in the breast meat. The thighs should have the color of well cured ham.”

Marinated Turkey Recipes

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When roasting or grilling whole turkeys, it is important to marinate the bird first before cooking. Since the dry heat methods in cooking also dries up the surface of the bird, marinating helps keep the meat moist. The ingredients in the marinade, most especially the acids like citrus or wine, will help tenderize the meat as well. With the seasonings, herbs and sauces incorporated into the marinade, it suffuses the meat with even more flavor.

In some marinated turkey recipes, the turkey may be brined first before marinating. Brining usually involves simple salt water although some recipes also include brown sugar, apple cider, and pepper. The brine solution keeps the turkey moist and well-seasoned. If using frozen turkey, be sure to allot at least three to four days for the process to ensure the turkey is perfectly and safely thawed and the brine permeates through the meat. Wash off the brine before applying the marinade. Though brining prolongs preparation time, brining and marinating turkey make it especially succulent. But if you prefer, you can skip the brining altogether and proceed to marinating.

The basic ingredients in marinated turkey recipes include an acid like vinegar, juice from a citrus fruit (like orange or lemon), or wine plus salt, pepper, herbs and spices (marjoram, thyme and sage are listed in a recipe for an herb marinade from the National Turkey Federation website).

The marinade for your marinated turkey recipes can be introduced into the turkey in any of the three ways. The most common is mixing the marinade and then putting it in a large plastic bag together with the turkey. Another way is to put the turkey in a glass bowl large enough to hold it and then pour the marinade. If you have a plastic bowl with cover, all the better. Turn the turkey so all the parts soak the flavor. You can also do this if using just the turkey parts like breast or leg.

Lastly, you can get the marinade deep into the turkey meat by using a meat, marinade or spice injector.  The meat injector has a syringe with a large gauge needle. With the marinade on the injector, you can inject it into the thicker parts of the meat for more moisture and flavor. Use only liquid marinade and avoid ingredients that may clog the injector.

Using any of these methods, remember that the turkey must always be marinated in the refrigerator for several hours or overnight. The NTF discourages using the marinade with which the bird had soaked to baste it on the grill to avoid contamination.